“My child just can’t sit in one place – I think he has ADHD” is one of the things you might hear during a friendly conversation between moms on the playground.
It might also be a suggestion from a teacher, said towards the parents based on observation of the child in question during class.
What is ADHD?
- ADHD (Attention Deficit Hiperactivity Disorder) is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is a childhood developmental disorder that occurs in the child’s development process, although adults can also suffer from ADHD. ADHD can have 2 different forms, depending on whether a specific factor has occurred in your child’s life that may have caused the disorder.
- ADHD can be of a primary nature – when it’s impossible to identify any specific event that may have caused a change in the child’s behavior, such as damage to brain centers. However, when such a factor has occurred in the child’s life, e.g. damage to the cerebral cortex – in such a case, we’re talking about the secondary form of this disorder.
Characteristic symptoms of ADHD
Symptoms of ADHD are visible in the child’s behavior and can be divided into 2 categories:
- criterial symptoms – these are the symptoms necessary to make a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder;
- other difficulties, disturbing and abnormal behavior manifested in other areas of the child’s life activity.
The criterion symptoms relate to changes in the child’s behavior in the sphere of hyperactivity, motor, impulsiveness and disturbance in attention.
In the area of motor hyperactivity, we observe numerous movements of the child, such as standing up, running, or manipulative movements of the hands with no specific purpose. An example would be a situation when a child sitting in the theater and watching a performance stomps with their legs all the time.
In addition, there may be tics or forced movements – especially when there is an enforced restriction on such activities.
How does ADHD form?
As with many other disorders, the exact explanation for the onset of ADHD is not entirely known. However, a strong genetic conditioning of this disorder has been detected – as the inheritability of ADHD is as high as 75-80%. In the case of ADHD, we are talking about a multi-genetic disorder.
[thrive_fill_counter color=”blue” value=”80″ before=”” after=”%” percentage=”80″ label=””]
Potential reasons include neuropsychological concepts emphasizing the relationship between structural and functional changes in the brain (reduction of the prefrontal cortex and reduced blood flow in the prefrontal areas) and psychological concepts.
Boy or girl?
Depending on the classification system used, statistics concerning the spread of this disorder in the general population vary. According to ICD-10, ADHD is a disorder of around 1-2% of the population, while DSM-5 claims it’s 3-10%. The differences are mostly dependent on the criteria used to diagnose the disorder.
No matter the system – ADHD is diagnosed more often in boys, and the proportions of boys to girls are around 3:1.
ADHD or simply the need of exercise?
In order to be diagnosed with ADHD, your child needs to fit several basic criteria. Your fear might develop when the behavior of your child starts to resemble such symptoms.
You need to remember one thing – not every energetic, impulsive kid that has a hard time concentrating is suffering from this disorder.